As well as “traditional” kneading, on my beginners baking course  I teach a kneading method inspired by Richard Bertinet. Called the “slap and fold” technique, it aims to maximise the amount of air getting into the dough, while avoiding handing the dough too much. I would add it’s good to use a dough scraper to clean up the surface every now and again.

Here’s a video showing it in action

Also to develop the gluten during bulk fermentation, it’s good to fold the dough (especially for wet doughs like ciabattas). I like to do this 3 times every 20 minutes in the first hour. Here’s a video showing a baker folding some dough.